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The Endorsement Primary

In presidential primaries, endorsements have been among the best predictors of which candidates will succeed and which will fail. So we’re keeping track.

UPDATED 10:22 a.m. EDT | May 25

1 point each
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10 points each
Total points
Hillary Clinton 511
Bernie Sanders 13
1 point each
5 points each
10 points each
Total points
Donald Trump 46
Marco Rubio 139
Ted Cruz 114
John Kasich 48
Chris Christie 26
Jeb Bush 23
Mike Huckabee 13
Rand Paul 13
Lindsey Graham 5
Carly Fiorina 3
Ben Carson 1
Scott Walker 1
Made within past two weeks
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Total pts
1 pt
5 pts
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Total pts

UPDATE (May 23): Donald Trump, who didn’t receive his first endorsement until three weeks after the Iowa caucuses, is the presumptive Republican nominee for president. Trump will enter the Republican National Convention with the fewest primary endorsements — by far — of any major party nominee since at least 1980. With Trump as the last GOP candidate remaining, any additional endorsements for him will be for the general election, not the primaries. As such, we won’t be listing those endorsements on this page.

Before any votes are cast, presidential candidates compete for the support of influential members of their party, especially elected officials like U.S. representatives, senators and governors. During the period known as the “invisible primary,” these “party elites” seek to coalesce around the candidates they find most acceptable as their party’s nominee. Over the past few decades, when these elites have reached a consensus on the best candidate, rank-and-file voters have usually followed.

Latest Endorsements
5/25Hillary Clinton endorsed by Sen. Robert Menendez, D-N.J. +5
5/21Hillary Clinton endorsed by Rep. Sam Farr, D-Calif. +1
Hillary Clinton endorsed by Rep. Albio Sires, D-N.J. +1

Of course, not all endorsements are equally valuable. We use a simple weighting system: 10 points for governors, 5 points for U.S. senators and 1 point for U.S. representatives (there are roughly five times as many representatives as senators and 10 times as many representatives as governors).

Current candidates, past nominees

Cumulative endorsement points of presidential nominees before they clinched — and how the 2016 candidates compare.

In the book “The Party Decides” (2008), the most comprehensive study of the invisible primary, the political scientists Marty Cohen, David Karol, Hans Noel and John Zaller evaluated data on endorsements made in presidential nomination contests between 1980 and 2004 and found that “early endorsements in the invisible primary are the most important cause of candidate success in the state primaries and caucuses.”

These endorsements can serve several purposes. In some cases, they directly influence voters who trust the judgment of governors and members of Congress from their party. In other cases, endorsements serve as a signal to other party elites. “It tells others who is acceptable and who is unacceptable,” Cohen, an associate professor of political science at James Madison University, said in an e-mail to FiveThirtyEight. “This is the coordination process that we believe goes on during the invisible primary and by way of public endorsements that was formerly and more formally undertaken at the convention.”

While each election cycle is different, nomination races since 1980 have fallen into two broad categories. In some — like the Republican contest of 1996 and both the Democratic and Republican races of 2000 — party elites rallied around a candidate well before the Iowa caucuses, and these candidates went on to win their nominations with relative ease. In others, like the Democratic contests of 1988 and 2004 , there was less of an endorsement consensus, with party officials taking more of a wait-and-see approach until voters weighed in. Party elites coalesced around a candidate only after the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary.

The shapes of past endorsement primaries

Each candidate’s share of the race’s total endorsement points before the nomination was clinched.

Show through:
2012 Republican Primary
2008 Republican Primary
2008 Democratic Primary
2004 Democratic Primary
2000 Republican Primary
2000 Democratic Primary
1996 Republican Primary
1992 Democratic Primary
1988 Republican Primary
1988 Democratic Primary
1984 Democratic Primary
1980 Republican Primary

Endorsements aren’t a foolproof predictor. In 2008 , more Democrats initially endorsed Hillary Clinton than Barack Obama (although Obama had some support). Still, a steady flow of endorsements for Obama after his early successes in states like Iowa and South Carolina helped to signal that he was an acceptable choice among party elites and presaged his success in other states.

In the 2016 election cycle, the Democratic and Republican races look very different. Hillary Clinton had a commanding lead in endorsements even before launching her campaign — to an extent that’s unprecedented for a non-incumbent Democrat. But Republican insiders have been slow to rally behind a candidate.

If you see an endorsement from a governor, U.S. senator or U.S. representative that we haven’t included, please email us. While endorsements from other party elites, such as local party officials in Iowa and New Hampshire, often matter as well, for the sake of simplicity, we won’t be focusing on them here.

2016 endorsements

FiveThirtyEight has collected 404 endorsements so far, out of a possible total of approximately 585.

Hillary Clinton5/25/16Robert MenendeznewSen. (D-N.J.)5
5/21Sam FarrnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
5/21Albio SiresnewRep. (D-N.J.)1
4/29Earl Ray TomblinnewGov. (D-W.Va.)10
4/26Brendan BoylenewRep. (D-Pa.)1
4/25Robert BradynewRep. (D-Pa.)1
4/16Mike DoylenewRep. (D-Pa.)1
4/10Elijah CummingsnewRep. (D-Md.)1
3/29Ron KindnewRep. (D-Wis.)1
3/21Kate BrownnewGov. (D-Ore.)10
3/7Gwen GrahamnewRep. (D-Fla.)1
2/28Lloyd DoggettnewRep. (D-Texas)1
2/26Ben R. LujannewRep. (D-N.M.)1
2/24Susan DavisnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
2/24Raul RuiznewRep. (D-Calif.)1
2/24Mark DeSaulniernewRep. (D-Calif.)1
2/24Eric SwalwellnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
2/24Harry ReidnewSen. (D-Nev.)5
2/19James E. ClyburnnewRep. (D-S.C.)1
2/7Juan VargasnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
2/5Jim CostanewRep. (D-Calif.)1
2/3Alma AdamsnewRep. (D-N.C.)1
2/1Chaka FattahnewRep. (D-Pa.)1
1/30Ron WydennewSen. (D-Ore.)5
1/29Al GreennewRep. (D-Texas)1
1/26David PricenewRep. (D-N.C.)1
1/19Mike QuigleynewRep. (D-Ill.)1
1/8Frank Pallone Jr.newRep. (D-N.J.)1
1/7G.K. ButterfieldnewRep. (D-N.C.)1
12/18/15Earl BlumenauernewRep. (D-Ore.)1
12/16Linda SáncheznewRep. (D-Calif.)1
12/15Brad AshfordnewRep. (D-Neb.)1
12/7Michael E. CapuanonewRep. (D-Mass.)1
11/30Jackie SpeiernewRep. (D-Calif.)1
11/30Jerry McNerneynewRep. (D-Calif.)1
11/30Maxine WatersnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
11/30Pete AguilarnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
11/30Anna G. EshoonewRep. (D-Calif.)1
11/19John A. YarmuthnewRep. (D-Ky.)1
11/17C. A. Dutch RuppersbergernewRep. (D-Md.)1
11/17Alan GraysonnewRep. (D-Fla.)1
11/17Donna F. EdwardsnewRep. (D-Md.)1
11/17John P. SarbanesnewRep. (D-Md.)1
11/17Jack ReednewSen. (D-R.I.)5
11/16Ruben GallegonewRep. (D-Ariz.)1
11/14Jay InsleenewGov. (D-Wash.)10
11/14Denny HecknewRep. (D-Wash.)1
11/14Suzan DelBenenewRep. (D-Wash.)1
11/13Joe DonnellynewSen. (D-Ind.)5
11/13Ann KirkpatricknewRep. (D-Ariz.)1
11/13Bobby L. RushnewRep. (D-Ill.)1
11/11Tony CárdenasnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
11/11Corrine BrownnewRep. (D-Fla.)1
11/11Gwen MoorenewRep. (D-Wis.)1
11/10Christopher A. CoonsnewSen. (D-Del.)5
11/9Bennie G. ThompsonnewRep. (D-Miss.)1
11/8Seth MoultonnewRep. (D-Mass.)1
11/5Maria CantwellnewSen. (D-Wash.)5
11/4Jay NixonnewGov. (D-Mo.)10
10/28Heidi HeitkampnewSen. (D-N.D.)5
10/28Jared HuffmannewRep. (D-Calif.)1
10/27Sherrod BrownnewSen. (D-Ohio)5
10/26John CarneynewRep. (D-Del.)1
10/26Thomas R. CarpernewSen. (D-Del.)5
10/23Paul D. TonkonewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
10/21Jack MarkellnewGov. (D-Del.)10
10/20Eliot EngelnewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
10/19Joe CourtneynewRep. (D-Conn.)1
10/16William KeatingnewRep. (D-Mass.)1
10/14Edward J. MarkeynewSen. (D-Mass.)5
10/13Hakeem JeffriesnewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
10/13Yvette D. ClarkenewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
10/5Robert C. ScottnewRep. (D-Va.)1
10/5John HickenloopernewGov. (D-Colo.)10
9/17Maggie HassannewGov. (D-N.H.)10
9/13Ann KusternewRep. (D-N.H.)1
9/7Cheri BustosnewRep. (D-Ill.)1
9/7David LoebsacknewRep. (D-Iowa)1
9/1Zoe LofgrennewRep. (D-Calif.)1
8/31Tammy BaldwinnewSen. (D-Wis.)5
8/28Timothy J. WalznewRep. (D-Minn.)1
8/24Bonnie Watson ColemannewRep. (D-N.J.)1
8/24John GaramendinewRep. (D-Calif.)1
8/24Donald Payne Jr.newRep. (D-N.J.)1
8/24Bill Pascrell Jr.newRep. (D-N.J.)1
8/18Jim HimesnewRep. (D-Conn.)1
8/6Xavier BecerranewRep. (D-Calif.)1
8/5Scott PetersnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
7/15Lois CappsnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
7/15Marcia L. FudgenewRep. (D-Ohio)1
7/14André CarsonnewRep. (D-Ind.)1
7/13Suzanne BonamicinewRep. (D-Ore.)1
6/27Niki TsongasnewRep. (D-Mass.)1
6/26Brenda LawrencenewRep. (D-Mich.)1
6/26Don BeyernewRep. (D-Va.)1
6/23William "Lacy" Clay Jr.newRep. (D-Mo.)1
6/23Matthew CartwrightnewRep. (D-Pa.)1
6/13Tom WolfnewGov. (D-Pa.)10
6/13John B. LarsonnewRep. (D-Conn.)1
6/13Elizabeth EstynewRep. (D-Conn.)1
6/7Dannel P. MalloynewGov. (D-Conn.)10
6/5Steve CohennewRep. (D-Tenn.)1
6/4Christopher MurphynewSen. (D-Conn.)5
5/27Katherine ClarknewRep. (D-Mass.)1
5/20Peter ShumlinnewGov. (D-Vt.)10
5/14Joseph P. Kennedy IIInewRep. (D-Mass.)1
5/12James McGovernnewRep. (D-Mass.)1
5/5Gary PetersnewSen. (D-Mich.)5
5/5Michael F. BennetnewSen. (D-Colo.)5
5/4Jared PolisnewRep. (D-Colo.)1
5/4José E. SerranonewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
5/4Ed PerlmutternewRep. (D-Colo.)1
5/4Sean Patrick MaloneynewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
5/4Rubén HinojosanewRep. (D-Texas)1
5/4Jim CoopernewRep. (D-Tenn.)1
5/4Kathy CastornewRep. (D-Fla.)1
5/4Mike ThompsonnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
5/4Joyce BeattynewRep. (D-Ohio)1
5/4Kathleen RicenewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
5/4Marc VeaseynewRep. (D-Texas)1
5/4Brad ShermannewRep. (D-Calif.)1
5/4Daniel KildeenewRep. (D-Mich.)1
5/4Gerald E. "Gerry" ConnollynewRep. (D-Va.)1
5/4Patrick MurphynewRep. (D-Fla.)1
5/4Adam SmithnewRep. (D-Wash.)1
5/4Henry CuellarnewRep. (D-Texas)1
5/4Julia BrownleynewRep. (D-Calif.)1
5/4Filemon VelanewRep. (D-Texas)1
5/4Eddie Bernice JohnsonnewRep. (D-Texas)1
5/4Adam SchiffnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
5/4Kurt SchradernewRep. (D-Ore.)1
5/4Derek KilmernewRep. (D-Wash.)1
4/29Emanuel CleavernewRep. (D-Mo.)1
4/24Robert P. Casey, Jr.newSen. (D-Pa.)5
4/23Cory A. BookernewSen. (D-N.J.)5
4/23Steve IsraelnewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
4/22John Conyers Jr.newRep. (D-Mich.)1
4/16Gina M. RaimondonewGov. (D-R.I.)10
4/15Jim McDermottnewRep. (D-Wash.)1
4/14Rosa L. DeLauronewRep. (D-Conn.)1
4/13Tom UdallnewSen. (D-N.M.)5
4/12Jeanne ShaheennewSen. (D-N.H.)5
4/12Karen BassnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
4/12Rick LarsennewRep. (D-Wash.)1
4/12Diana DeGettenewRep. (D-Colo.)1
4/12Andrew M. CuomonewGov. (D-N.Y.)10
4/12Debbie DingellnewRep. (D-Mich.)1
4/11Jerrold NadlernewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
4/11Nydia M. VelázqueznewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
2/2Brian SchatznewSen. (D-Hawaii)5
1/29Alcee L. HastingsnewRep. (D-Fla.)1
1/27Tammy DuckworthnewRep. (D-Ill.)1
1/27Judy ChunewRep. (D-Calif.)1
1/27Ami BeranewRep. (D-Calif.)1
1/27Mark TakanonewRep. (D-Calif.)1
1/27Ted LieunewRep. (D-Calif.)1
1/27Mazie K. HirononewSen. (D-Hawaii)5
1/22Loretta SancheznewRep. (D-Calif.)1
1/22Grace NapolitanonewRep. (D-Calif.)1
1/22Lucille Roybal-AllardnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
12/18/14Bill NelsonnewSen. (D-Fla.)5
12/16Al FrankennewSen. (D-Minn.)5
12/1Benjamin L. CardinnewSen. (D-Md.)5
12/1Barbara A. MikulskinewSen. (D-Md.)5
11/14Terry McAuliffenewGov. (D-Va.)10
11/10Charles B. RangelnewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
10/14Nita LoweynewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
8/5Mark R. WarnernewSen. (D-Va.)5
7/12Martin HeinrichnewSen. (D-N.M.)5
7/12Michelle Lujan GrishamnewRep. (D-N.M.)1
6/21Patrick J. LeahynewSen. (D-Vt.)5
6/7Richard BlumenthalnewSen. (D-Conn.)5
6/6Robin KellynewRep. (D-Ill.)1
6/6Bill FosternewRep. (D-Ill.)1
6/5Richard J. DurbinnewSen. (D-Ill.)5
6/4Amy KlobucharnewSen. (D-Minn.)5
5/22Debbie StabenownewSen. (D-Mich.)5
5/4Mark TakainewRep. (D-Hawaii)1
5/3Tim KainenewSen. (D-Va.)5
2/7Ted DeutchnewRep. (D-Fla.)1
1/31Joseph CrowleynewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
1/29Joe Manchin IIInewSen. (D-W.Va.)5
1/28Frederica WilsonnewRep. (D-Fla.)1
1/28Jan SchakowskynewRep. (D-Ill.)1
1/28Danny K. DavisnewRep. (D-Ill.)1
1/28Luis GutierreznewRep. (D-Ill.)1
1/28Sheila Jackson LeenewRep. (D-Texas)1
1/28Janice HahnnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
1/28Chellie PingreenewRep. (D-Maine)1
1/28Sander LevinnewRep. (D-Mich.)1
1/28Sheldon WhitehousenewSen. (D-R.I.)5
1/28Gene GreennewRep. (D-Texas)1
1/28John DelaneynewRep. (D-Md.)1
1/28Louise SlaughternewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
1/28Jim LangevinnewRep. (D-R.I.)1
1/28David ScottnewRep. (D-Ga.)1
1/28Mike HondanewRep. (D-Calif.)1
1/28Terri A. SewellnewRep. (D-Ala.)1
1/28Steny H. HoyernewRep. (D-Md.)1
1/28Brian HigginsnewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
1/28Cedric RichmondnewRep. (D-La.)1
1/28Joaquin CastronewRep. (D-Texas)1
1/28David CicillinenewRep. (D-R.I.)1
1/28Richard E. NealnewRep. (D-Mass.)1
1/28Grace MengnewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
1/28John LewisnewRep. (D-Ga.)1
1/28Lois FrankelnewRep. (D-Fla.)1
1/28Henry C. "Hank" Jr. JohnsonnewRep. (D-Ga.)1
1/28Gregory W. MeeksnewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
1/28Doris O. MatsuinewRep. (D-Calif.)1
1/28Stephen F. LynchnewRep. (D-Mass.)1
1/13Chris Van HollennewRep. (D-Md.)1
12/12/13Dianne FeinsteinnewSen. (D-Calif.)5
11/17Kirsten E. GillibrandnewSen. (D-N.Y.)5
11/11Carolyn MaloneynewRep. (D-N.Y.)1
11/8Patty MurraynewSen. (D-Wash.)5
11/7Mark DaytonnewGov. (D-Minn.)10
11/5Tim RyannewRep. (D-Ohio)1
11/2Charles E. SchumernewSen. (D-N.Y.)5
10/30Barbara BoxernewSen. (D-Calif.)5
8/18Dina TitusnewRep. (D-Nev.)1
6/18Claire McCaskillnewSen. (D-Mo.)5
Bernie Sanders4/13/16Jeff MerkleynewSen. (D-Ore.)5
4/10Rick NolannewRep. (D-Minn.)1
3/26Collin C. PetersonnewRep. (D-Minn.)1
3/11Marcy KapturnewRep. (D-Ohio)1
2/29Alan GraysonnewRep. (D-Fla.)1
2/28Tulsi GabbardnewRep. (D-Hawaii)1
2/19Peter WelchnewRep. (D-Vt.)1
10/12/15Keith EllisonnewRep. (D-Minn.)1
10/7Raúl GrijalvanewRep. (D-Ariz.)1
Joe Biden9/1/15Christopher A. CoonsnewSen. (D-Del.)5
8/18John CarneynewRep. (D-Del.)1
8/17Jack MarkellnewGov. (D-Del.)10
Martin O'Malley7/24/15Eric SwalwellnewRep. (D-Calif.)1
Donald Trump4/30/16John J. Duncan Jr.newRep. (R-Tenn.)1
4/28Jeff MillernewRep. (R-Fla.)1
4/28Bill ShusternewRep. (R-Pa.)1
4/3Kevin CramernewRep. (R-N.D.)1
3/22Lou BarlettanewRep. (R-Pa.)1
3/21Renee EllmersnewRep. (R-N.C.)1
3/16Rick ScottnewGov. (R-Fla.)10
3/16Tom ReednewRep. (R-N.Y.)1
2/29Tom MarinonewRep. (R-Pa.)1
2/29Scott DesJarlaisnewRep. (R-Tenn.)1
2/28Jeff SessionsnewSen. (R-Ala.)5
2/26Chris ChristienewGov. (R-N.J.)10
2/26Paul R. LePagenewGov. (R-Maine)10
2/24Duncan D. HunternewRep. (R-Calif.)1
2/24Chris CollinsnewRep. (R-N.Y.)1
Marco Rubio3/3/16Susana MartineznewGov. (R-N.M.)10
3/2Reid RibblenewRep. (R-Wis.)1
2/29Tom GravesnewRep. (R-Ga.)1
2/29Phil RoenewRep. (R-Tenn.)1
2/28Lamar AlexandernewSen. (R-Tenn.)5
2/25Bill HaslamnewGov. (R-Tenn.)10
2/24Ander CrenshawnewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/24Adam KinzingernewRep. (R-Ill.)1
2/23Pete KingnewRep. (R-N.Y.)1
2/22Jeff MillernewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/22Jeff FlakenewSen. (R-Ariz.)5
2/22Gus M. BilirakisnewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/22Erik PaulsennewRep. (R-Minn.)1
2/22Orrin G. HatchnewSen. (R-Utah)5
2/22Daniel CoatsnewSen. (R-Ind.)5
2/22Mimi WaltersnewRep. (R-Calif.)1
2/22Rodney DavisnewRep. (R-Ill.)1
2/22Asa HutchinsonnewGov. (R-Ark.)10
2/22Thom TillisnewSen. (R-N.C.)5
2/21Mario Diaz-BalartnewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/21Cresent HardynewRep. (R-Nev.)1
2/21Carlos CurbelonewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/21Ileana Ros-LehtinennewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/21Mark AmodeinewRep. (R-Nev.)1
2/21Dean HellernewSen. (R-Nev.)5
2/20Joe WilsonnewRep. (R-S.C.)1
2/18Pat RobertsnewSen. (R-Kan.)5
2/18Dan BenisheknewRep. (R-Mich.)1
2/17Nikki R. HaleynewGov. (R-S.C.)10
2/15Sam BrownbacknewGov. (R-Kan.)10
2/8Deb FischernewSen. (R-Neb.)5
2/4Lynn A. WestmorelandnewRep. (R-Ga.)1
2/4John KlinenewRep. (R-Minn.)1
2/3Glenn W. ThompsonnewRep. (R-Pa.)1
2/3Robert PittengernewRep. (R-N.C.)1
2/3Patrick J. ToomeynewSen. (R-Pa.)5
2/3Rick CrawfordnewRep. (R-Ark.)1
2/3Steve WomacknewRep. (R-Ark.)1
2/3Matt SalmonnewRep. (R-Ariz.)1
2/2Tim ScottnewSen. (R-S.C.)5
1/9James M. InhofenewSen. (R-Okla.)5
1/6Jason ChaffetznewRep. (R-Utah)1
12/26/15Trey GowdynewRep. (R-S.C.)1
12/22Rob BishopnewRep. (R-Utah)1
12/18Mike CoffmannewRep. (R-Colo.)1
12/16Barbara ComstocknewRep. (R-Va.)1
12/11Scott RigellnewRep. (R-Va.)1
12/9Larry BucshonnewRep. (R-Ind.)1
12/1Bill HuizenganewRep. (R-Mich.)1
11/30Darrell IssanewRep. (R-Calif.)1
11/23Jaime Herrera BeutlernewRep. (R-Wash.)1
11/20Markwayne MullinnewRep. (R-Okla.)1
11/19Mia LovenewRep. (R-Utah)1
11/18Doug LaMalfanewRep. (R-Calif.)1
11/6Kristi NoemnewRep. (R-S.D.)1
11/6Mike PompeonewRep. (R-Kan.)1
11/4James E. RischnewSen. (R-Idaho)5
11/3Steve DainesnewSen. (R-Mont.)5
11/2Cory GardnernewSen. (R-Colo.)5
10/22Jason SmithnewRep. (R-Mo.)1
10/21Sean P. DuffynewRep. (R-Wis.)1
10/14Darin LaHoodnewRep. (R-Ill.)1
10/5Todd RokitanewRep. (R-Ind.)1
9/27Chris StewartnewRep. (R-Utah)1
9/24John MoolenaarnewRep. (R-Mich.)1
9/21Austin ScottnewRep. (R-Ga.)1
2/18Tom RooneynewRep. (R-Fla.)1
Ted Cruz4/29/16Mike PencenewGov. (R-Ind.)10
4/27Cory GardnernewSen. (R-Colo.)5
4/9Doug LambornnewRep. (R-Colo.)1
4/8Joe BartonnewRep. (R-Texas)1
4/6James E. RischnewSen. (R-Idaho)5
4/2Reid RibblenewRep. (R-Wis.)1
3/29Scott WalkernewGov. (R-Wis.)10
3/22Mia LovenewRep. (R-Utah)1
3/21Gary HerbertnewGov. (R-Utah)10
3/20Matt SalmonnewRep. (R-Ariz.)1
3/17Lindsey GrahamnewSen. (R-S.C.)5
3/17Jeb HensarlingnewRep. (R-Texas)1
3/16Nikki R. HaleynewGov. (R-S.C.)10
3/16David SchweikertnewRep. (R-Ariz.)1
3/11Glenn GrothmannewRep. (R-Wis.)1
3/11Trent FranksnewRep. (R-Ariz.)1
3/11Ann WagnernewRep. (R-Mo.)1
3/10Mike LeenewSen. (R-Utah)5
3/7Phil BryantnewGov. (R-Miss.)10
2/23Greg AbbottnewGov. (R-Texas)10
2/23Justin AmashnewRep. (R-Mich.)1
2/22Roger WilliamsnewRep. (R-Texas)1
2/19Mark SanfordnewRep. (R-S.C.)1
2/16Tim HuelskampnewRep. (R-Kan.)1
2/16Raul R. LabradornewRep. (R-Idaho)1
2/2Jeff DuncannewRep. (R-S.C.)1
1/27Mark MeadowsnewRep. (R-N.C.)1
1/20Ken BucknewRep. (R-Colo.)1
1/14Tom McClintocknewRep. (R-Calif.)1
1/12Alex MooneynewRep. (R-W.Va.)1
1/12Paul A. GosarnewRep. (R-Ariz.)1
1/11Sam JohnsonnewRep. (R-Texas)1
12/7/15Sam GravesnewRep. (R-Mo.)1
11/19Dana RohrabachernewRep. (R-Calif.)1
11/16Steve KingnewRep. (R-Iowa)1
11/9Mo BrooksnewRep. (R-Ala.)1
9/28Randy WebernewRep. (R-Texas)1
8/6Jody HicenewRep. (R-Ga.)1
7/18Jim BridenstinenewRep. (R-Okla.)1
7/2Brian BabinnewRep. (R-Texas)1
5/21Michael BurgessnewRep. (R-Texas)1
5/21Louie GohmertnewRep. (R-Texas)1
5/21John RatcliffenewRep. (R-Texas)1
4/17John CulbersonnewRep. (R-Texas)1
John Kasich4/16/16Brian SandovalnewGov. (R-Nev.)10
4/2Don YoungnewRep. (R-Alaska)1
3/16James M. InhofenewSen. (R-Okla.)5
3/6Mike BishopnewRep. (R-Mich.)1
2/24Charles W. DentnewRep. (R-Pa.)1
2/24C.L. "Butch" OtternewGov. (R-Idaho)10
1/9Rob PortmannewSen. (R-Ohio)5
10/28/15Bill JohnsonnewRep. (R-Ohio)1
9/2Gregg HarpernewRep. (R-Miss.)1
8/17Robert BentleynewGov. (R-Ala.)10
7/6Michael TurnernewRep. (R-Ohio)1
7/6Pat TiberinewRep. (R-Ohio)1
7/6Steve StiversnewRep. (R-Ohio)1
Chris Christie2/5/16Charlie BakernewGov. (R-Mass.)10
12/4/15Susan W. BrooksnewRep. (R-Ind.)1
7/22Patrick MeehannewRep. (R-Pa.)1
7/15Larry HogannewGov. (R-Md.)10
7/1Paul R. LePagenewGov. (R-Maine)10
6/30Rodney FrelinghuysennewRep. (R-N.J.)1
6/30Frank LoBiondonewRep. (R-N.J.)1
6/30Tom MacArthurnewRep. (R-N.J.)1
6/30Leonard LancenewRep. (R-N.J.)1
Jeb Bush1/15/16Lindsey GrahamnewSen. (R-S.C.)5
12/8/15Thad CochrannewSen. (R-Miss.)5
11/23Mike BishopnewRep. (R-Mich.)1
11/13Luke MessernewRep. (R-Ind.)1
10/23Ann WagnernewRep. (R-Mo.)1
10/23Kay GrangernewRep. (R-Texas)1
10/17Mimi WaltersnewRep. (R-Calif.)1
10/7David ValadaonewRep. (R-Calif.)1
9/17Mike RogersnewRep. (R-Ala.)1
8/21Patrick T. McHenrynewRep. (R-N.C.)1
8/20Jeff DenhamnewRep. (R-Calif.)1
8/19Dave TrottnewRep. (R-Mich.)1
8/12Dean HellernewSen. (R-Nev.)5
8/12Orrin G. HatchnewSen. (R-Utah)5
7/28Tom ReednewRep. (R-N.Y.)1
7/1Susan M. CollinsnewSen. (R-Maine)5
6/23Chris CollinsnewRep. (R-N.Y.)1
6/17Mark AmodeinewRep. (R-Nev.)1
6/12Daniel WebsternewRep. (R-Fla.)1
6/12Jeff MillernewRep. (R-Fla.)1
6/12Vern BuchanannewRep. (R-Fla.)1
6/12Gus M. BilirakisnewRep. (R-Fla.)1
6/12John MicanewRep. (R-Fla.)1
6/12Carlos CurbelonewRep. (R-Fla.)1
5/18Pete SessionsnewRep. (R-Texas)1
2/18Ander CrenshawnewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/18David JollynewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/18Mario Diaz-BalartnewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/18Ileana Ros-LehtinennewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/18Dennis RossnewRep. (R-Fla.)1
2/17Adam KinzingernewRep. (R-Ill.)1
Mike Huckabee1/11/16Trent FranksnewRep. (R-Ariz.)1
11/30/15Duncan D. HunternewRep. (R-Calif.)1
9/28Rick CrawfordnewRep. (R-Ark.)1
9/28French HillnewRep. (R-Ark.)1
9/28Chuck FleischmannnewRep. (R-Tenn.)1
9/28Bruce WestermannewRep. (R-Ark.)1
8/13John BoozmannewSen. (R-Ark.)5
8/6Mike RoundsnewSen. (R-S.D.)5
5/5Asa HutchinsonnewGov. (R-Ark.)10
Rand Paul9/21/15Mick MulvaneynewRep. (R-S.C.)1
7/15Cynthia M. LummisnewRep. (R-Wyo.)1
5/4Justin AmashnewRep. (R-Mich.)1
4/10Walter B. JonesnewRep. (R-N.C.)1
4/6Thomas MassienewRep. (R-Ky.)1
4/6S. Brett GuthrienewRep. (R-Ky.)1
4/6Andy BarrnewRep. (R-Ky.)1
4/5Raul R. LabradornewRep. (R-Idaho)1
4/1Ed WhitfieldnewRep. (R-Ky.)1
2/21Curt ClawsonnewRep. (R-Fla.)1
11/6/14Mitch McConnellnewSen. (R-Ky.)5
Lindsey Graham1/29/15John McCainnewSen. (R-Ariz.)5
Carly Fiorina10/8/15Jeff FortenberrynewRep. (R-Neb.)1
9/23Candice MillernewRep. (R-Mich.)1
9/20Lynn JenkinsnewRep. (R-Kan.)1
Ben Carson2/17/16Andy HarrisnewRep. (R-Md.)1
Scott Walker8/7/15Doug CollinsnewRep. (R-Ga.)1
4/22Reid RibblenewRep. (R-Wis.)1
4/11Sean P. DuffynewRep. (R-Wis.)1
Rick Perry7/17/15Joe BartonnewRep. (R-Texas)1
Rick Santorum6/2/15Lou BarlettanewRep. (R-Pa.)1
Illustration by Mike McQuade. Candidate portraits by Kristina Micotti. Abby Abrams, Hannah Fingerhut, and Dhrumil Mehta contributed research. Additional contributions from Allison McCann and Jay Boice.
Sources: “The Party Decides”; Democracy In Action; news reports.

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